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Races - human beings

Races of mankind human beings living on our planet all belong to the same species. But varying geographical conditions and climates have resulted in the evolution (development by change) of different groups called races.

It is believed that all people originally came from one common ancestral type, but the various groups now have distinct and characteristic differences. However, we should not think of racial differences as being hard and fast, because the races often overlap, and there is no such thing as a pure race.

Nevertheless, some humans are tall, fair-skinned and blue-eyed, often with light colored wavy hair (the Caucasoid type). Some, again, are small and slimly built, with long straight black hair, and slanting almond-shaped eyes (the Mongoloid type). Such variations are no more extreme and remarkable than those found between the draft horse, the slim, speedy racehorse or even the small Shetland pony, which are all descended from the prehistoric horse.

Map of races human beings

Races - human beings

The map shows, as far as possible, the distribution of the five major divisions of mankind apart from recent migration. The Khoisaniforms (Bushmen) are a small population of dark-skinned people in South West Africa.

The different races of human beings family hand down their physical characteristics to their children. But, because men move, either singly or in groups, from one part of the globe to another, and intermarry, most countries have a mixture of types. In addition to differences in colours of the skin, eyes, and hair, there can be characteristic differences in the shape of the head and nose, and in the bulk and average height of people.

In Europe, the Caucasoid peoples are divided into several types. The Nordic type is found mainly in the north and west, and as a rule these peoples have long narrow heads, fair coloring, and blue eyes, and are quite tall. The Alpine type is darker than the Nordic, having a rounder head, and is shorter on the whole, and often has brown eyes. This type is found chiefly in central Europe and in a broad belt of land stretching from western France as far as Iran in the east. Around the Mediterranean, people are dark-haired, but inclined to be short, and slightly built.

Mongoloid races are found throughout the continent of Asia, and have spread east, through migrations, to become the Eskimos and American Indians; south-east into the Pacific Islands; and west to become the Lapps of Europe. Their heads are round, covered in long straight hair, and their skins are yellow or brown. As a rule, they have short flat noses and slanting eyes. In Africa south of the Sahara, the people have short woolly hair, black skin and eyes.

Both North and South America are believed to have been peopled originally by very early migrations from eastern Asia, where the Mongolian race is dominant. The many tribes of American Indians are descended from these early migrants. The majority of white Americans are descendants of the European types who settled there.

The Australian aborigine is of the Australoid type, with dark skin, wavy hair, and overhanging eyebrows. Similar types are found in some Indian jungle tribes. New Zealand Maoris are Polynesians, mainly Mongoloid, but taller than average. This type is found all over the Pacific. Papuans and Melanesians, who live from New Guinea to Fiji, are Negroid types, though their noses are long and they have long mop-like hair. More interesting facts about races of human beings you can find on this page, for example 

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